For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. 1 His book, African Religions and Philosophy (London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1980), is a small compendium on the meaning of life in traditional and modern African society. of the people which are all together. J ohn S. M biti is Professor of Theology and Comparative Religion in Makere University College, Uganda. Today, Christianity and Islam are religions practiced by the majority of people living in Africa. Native African historians and scholars, from mid-20th c. The literature on African Christianity is huge and often characterized by diverse colonial and religious perspectives and biases, requiring one to read it critically. African traditional religion was in line with the taboos while in Christianity worship is in line with the ten commandments. 2 John S. Mbiti, Bible and Theology in African Christianity, (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1986), 134-175. There are common beliefs in Africa although the continent is a large with many different cultures and Abstract: The inception, evangelization and missionary activities of Christianity and Islam in Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan traditional area in the Central Region of Ghana resulted in the conversions of the indigenous people, mainly, from African Traditional Religion (ATR) to the two mission religions. The African Traditional Religion of one ethnic group does not motivate its believers to teach and convert people from another ethnic group. In four countries, for instance, half or more of the population believes that sacrifices to ancestors or spirits can protect them from harm. Although the majority of Africans today are adherents of Christianity or Islam, African people often combine the practice of their traditional belief with the practice of Abrahamic religions. Because God is just and Holy, He demands justice and holiness of His people. The latter confirms that African culture is predominently patriarchal. The term “Primal” is used to refer to religions which were there prior to the so-called “universal” religions such as Christianity, Islam, etc. Christian faith in the presence of men, they are quick to declare, now, that _ Before doing this (i.e. The need for a further These figures represent peo-ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. African Religion and its Influence on Christianity and Islam Traditional African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa. Many Christians and Muslims in sub-Saharan Africa describe members of the other faith as tolerant and honest. The attitude of these two indigenous African missionaries obviously differ from their earlier African Christian or Muslim theology or even a theology of the African religious tradition that is neither Christian nor Muslim. 5. traditional religion, their shrines and amulets to observe Sundays piously, and to eschew alcohol, stealing and adultery, the last two being most rampant crimes in societies. The revival Missiologists have worked more broadly on a correlation of Christianity with African culture as a whole, speaking in terms of an ethnotheology. Roman between African traditional religion and the Christian faith. Rev. Keywords mission, Kavango, Namibia, cultural change, Christianity, traditional African religion, interview Place … Structures of Grace in African Traditional Religions We are beginning this section with the investigation of the criterion for a true religion. African traditional religions have been washed away, and especially with Christianity, they are viewed as pagan and heathen in nature. I am not saying that converts to Christianity from African traditional beliefs practice polygamy, I am presuming your original purpose is to clarify what is acceptable and workable within Christianity for … For more on African religions, see the related Oxford Bibliographies articles on African Traditional Religion and Islam in Africa. Faso more than 33 percent follow African religion, although it is not the religion of the majority. In most countries, Many Africans across the continent are becoming more open about the idea of blending of traditional African religious practices with various other religions, including Christianity and Islam. On polygamy he remained silent. Adherents of traditional religions in sub-Saharan Africa are distributed among 43 countries and are estimated to number over 100 million.. – either by traditional religions or Islam. By the end of the 2nd century it had reached the region around Carthage.In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. (Tasie, 1980). Faith in the One God in Christian and African Traditional Religions 59 Church, we find that the adherents of African Traditional religions came into view as the People of God, in Lumen Gentium 9. take more objective view, seeing some value in social functions of African religions • 3. To mention a few of the most popular religions in the world are Judaism, Jainism, Hinduism, Islam, Roman Catholicism and more. Africa's influential university departments of religion have usually approached the theme in terms of establishing correlations between Christianity and Africa's traditional religions. This article tackles one of the most interesting subjects in African Christianity and African traditional religions. While everyone is entitled to their religion, it is the same religion which has shaped Africa's history especially with the advent of imperialism and colonialism upon which it was built. Yet these This paper focuses on the conicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. in West Africa. European Christian missionaries from 16th century onwards see African religions as demonic, primitive, evil & stupid • 2. As in most of sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the indigenous religion … Traditional African cultural practices paved the way for foreign way of doing things as Africans became fully ‘westernised’. Side by side with their high levels of commitment to Christianity and Islam, many people in the countries surveyed retain beliefs and rituals that are characteristic of traditional African religions. A classificatory system which attempts to distinguish the principal responses Even so, Christians in Kavango see Christianity as something brought to them by God’s power, so they can confess faith in Jesus whom they did not previously know. But before those two religions arrived, there were several traditional religions practiced. saying what the faith is which is actually in us) we should like to reflect further on hope as this is experienced in the traditional religions of Africa, in so far as this hope is … This leads him into the whole area of theology of religions, in which the relationship between Christianity and other religions is currently the focus of lively debate. Foreign anthropologists from late 19thc. 4. ancestors, traditional religious healers, reincarnation and other elements of traditional African religions.1 Christianity and Islam also coexist with each other. presuppositions about life in a Traditional/Primal society. The evangelistic mandate of Christianity and the very nature of Jehovah God encompasses all ethnic groups on the planet. The Christian believes that (Turner 1994a:129). Since independence, religions has also played a role in various armed confl icts, e.g. on account of the persistent marginalisation of African Traditional Religion (ATR) in Sierra Leone by Islam and Christianity, to investigate the place of ATR in inter-religious encounters in the country since the advent of Islam and Christianity. There have been concerted efforts to supplant traditional religion and its various institutions for over a century now. With Africa subjugated and dominated, the Western culture and European mode of civilisation began to thrive and outgrow African cultural heritage. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. These are the societies whose religion reveal have a number of the basic features of all religions (Burnett 1995:57). This article was the last of three lectures delivered at a religious workshop on Religion in Africa Today, held at St. Paul's Theological College, Limuru, Kenya, 13–16 April 1970, and attended by staff from theological colleges in East Africa. As a result, there are declining numbers of followers of traditional indigenous religions and very few atheists or agnostics. Religion was first used in Christianity but through the passage of years, the word has slowly become known to demonstrate the connection of humans to the holy one. Africa is home to nearly 600 million people. Both Christianity and African traditional religion believes that the Supreme Being is good, loving, merciful, benevolent, honest, wise and all – knowing (omniscience). The article draws attention to the continuing popularity of African traditional healing practices, and asks whether African churches and modern medical programs can continue simply to denounce or to ignore such practices. In christianity, they believe that God is the alpha and omega, and in traditional African religion, they also believe the same. Th e report then “zooms in” on East Africa, where the three religious “families” of traditional religion, Islam and Christianity are all present in large numbers. Christianity and Islam are leading religious traditions — each has in excess of 250 million followers in Africa. (vi) Marriage makes it possible for traditional Africans to link the three dimensions of existence together ( the living, the dead and the yet to be born). A number of the corporate society whereas Christianity does not insist on everyone getting married religions in Africa... 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